Saturday, November 17, 2012

Digital art is continuously developing and is generally qualified as art work that incorporates technology and computers. It has evolved into a diverse collection of practices that range from object-oriented works to those art forms that integrate dynamic and interactive elements with a process-driven virtual form.  

The Internet has afforded many individuals a global platform and exchange of information. For artists, the advent of the World Wide Web and recent developments in wireless technologies and mobile devices enhance the means of accessibility and mass circulation of artwork[1].  In addition, there has been a growing enterprise and popularity of gaming. Currently, it is considered to be a billion dollar industry which has been an important factor in the ‘digital revolution’ as it has explored many paradigms that are now common in interactive art.[2] It has become increasingly more lucrative and exceeds the film industry. Artists have given games a different value other than entertainment or fun when it merges and engages with culture.  Pippin Bar is an artist who operates within the realm of the Internet and combines both text and the tactics of games to express and distribute his messages and work. He uses the structures of games as a means of creative expression, as instruments for conceptual thinking and as tools to help examine social issues and the world around us. There is a wide variety of genres of games which includes strategic, shooters, god games, and action.

Several successful video games are extremely violent ‘shooters’ genre. Hence, it seems only likely that digital artworks would critically investigate their interactive predecessors and counterparts and explore their paradigms in a different context[3]. Video games such as, Barr’s War Game (2012) is an action shooter game that explores the human psyche through a seemingly endless cycle of fighting and self evaluation.  

War Game [4]has visual similarities to old halcyon handheld LCD games and Barr creates it with features such as beep sounds, slow refresh rates and intentional glitches. As the game progresses and as the user is further injured, the more glitches are experienced. The glitches begin to take the form of civilians, letters and harmful bombs. As the player is injured there is a mandatory mental health self evaluation where the player expresses his/her own thoughts in 100 characters or less on war, fighting and family. The glitches make everything difficult to read and metaphorically appear that the soldier’s judgments and mental constructs are slowly deteriorating every time the soldier is forced to fight or experience more battles. Throughout history, there has been a mental illness that is caused by war presently referred to as post-traumatic stress disorder. Military combat is one the potential sources of this condition. The recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in increased military related suicides. In the year of 2009, approximately 1500 veterans who were deployed or experienced these wars have made suicide attempts[5]. This aspect of the game is a commentary on the mistreatment of military veterans and the effects on their health.

Additionally, in War Game, Barr shows a human condition of fighting where it does not make sense, there are no sides and there is no identity for the opponent. The game evokes rhetorical questions such as, does the player even care about who is the opposition and why the player is fighting this battle. The game is not sensible with enticingly unconventional and unsolvable game goals that are not articulated. Text becomes a vital element in the game. The decision of making the psyche evaluation 100 characters in War Game makes a profound effect on how the game operates. The limitation can suggest oppression as the player’s answer is cut off immediately at the character limit which can also be interpreted as a metaphor that the military psychologist is not listening. Barr is making a statement on the human foibles such as excessive competitiveness and winning against one another. There is the commentary of war being hopeless and the question of the aspect of the play function or functionality[6]. Barr’s emphasises on the player’s process. As he is not solely the creator of the work, Barr’s role is a facilitator for audiences’ interaction and contribution to the artwork.

Another game is Let there be Smite! (2011)[7]: This is a humorous god game that allows the user to play the role of God and to decide whether to punish or forgive all the sinners in the world. The humour of the game focuses on religion and god games. It is also a satire on the social behaviours of humans. It equates being God as a metaphor of monotonous and tedious desk job where the player deals with the sins of the world as they arise. Sins are defined by the parameters of the Ten Commandments. The player can either forgive or smite the sinner in an infinite cycle. The visual simulation is a view of a “surveillance” camera and then popping dialog boxes that notify the users of the sins committed by the community. As the population grows, the speed of the sins committed increases and it becomes increasingly overwhelming and ultimately the player may activate the panic button can be activated where in the virtual reality a great flood occurs and washes away the sinners to start humanity afresh. However, it is a cycle of a community that is committing a wide range of sins. [8] During this chaos, there is the moment when the player would no longer read and respond to the sins in an inattentive manner. In games, it is common that players would consider their course of action, however the game intensifies that inattentive state while proceeding in relation to the ambiguous boundaries of accepted morals and behaviours that should not be treated in that unmanageable way. Barr’s design creates the impression that humanity is bound to commit sins, that humans have weaknesses and foibles and the role of God is to decide how much can be tolerated.

Furthermore, Barr sees games as a fascinating means to circumvent the unconscious expression and authorship itself. His strategy of clever manipulations of data, texts, phrases and visuals contribute to humorous, satirical and wry commentaries on art and world issues.  Barr is concerned with social issues and employs game-like structures and interactivity as the opportunity to involve the viewers in heightened ways. Although any experience with art is interactive, it relies on a relationship between context and production of meaning from the audience.  Thus, the interactive experience of traditional forms resonates as a mental event in the viewer. However, the interactivity in digital art offers different forms of navigating, assembling, or contributing to an artwork that goes beyond this purely mental event. The participant’s involvement is with a work confronted with complex possibilities of remote and immediate interventions that are unique to the digital medium[8]. Barr provides a lens through which we engage the world not just the arts but also politics, the military, psychology and history. Barr spurs untraditional approaches to game design and tries to foster intervention which can address social issues. 

Since the early 1990s, digital art had made profound developments and it continues to expand. It engages audiences in a unique process that consists of information, textual, visual and aural components and does not reveal the artist’s intention and content at a glance. The expansion of digital technology will continue to have a great impact on the world. Artists often mirror their time and induce the creation of even more artworks that reflect and critically engage life and culture. The artist manipulates content, codes of conduct, contact conception and ways of interacting.

[1] Paul, Christiane. Digital art. (London; New York: Thames & Hudson, 2008), 7
[2] Ibid., 18
[3] Rush, Michael. New Media in Art. London; New York: Thames & Hudson, 2005, 213
[4]  Pippin Barr. “War Game”. Accessed October 16, 2012.
[5]  Huffington Post. “Veteran Suicide: Are We Losing The Battle?” Accessed October 20, 2012.
[6] MOMA. “ Contemporary Art Forum: Critical Play – The Game as an Art Form”. Accessed on October 13, 2012.
[7] Pippin Barr. “War Game”. Accessed October 16, 2012.
[8]Pippin Barr. “War Game”. Accessed October 16, 2012.
[9] Wong, Chee-Onn, Keechul Jung, and Joonsung Yoon. “Interactive Art: The Art That Communicates.” Leonardo 42, no. 2 (January 1, 2009): 180–181.

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

Information Aesthetics

Found a website that has a great variety of data visualization. The website update continuously and have a very stunning visual and interesting information.

Here's some examples

How Obama Won: Showing the Electoral Shifts through Visual Animation 

Explore the Words Spoken at the Republican Convention

Exploding NBA Basketball Shot Heat Map Analysis

Fat or Fiction: Nutritional Values Depicted as Food Based Infographics

The Historical Evolution of Europe's Borders

By Tongtach Tupavong

Monday, November 5, 2012

Beauty VS Function (Part 2) - Tongtach

Typography plays a big roll as a fundamental in the world of communication. From one letter that can expresses subjectivity feeling; to formal static message; to words that convey readability and show poetry harmony. In other words, typography contains a lot of information by itself. If one letter could deliver that much information, what’s going to happened if a huge among of them stay and work together? Does typography will lose its beauty, readability or can’t express feeling anymore? This leads us to the next challenge in the world of communication, information design.

Since the world in the present day is full of endless message and information, so we can’t deny that designing information is the necessary field. It’s a challenge for designers who are taking care of information design. Because they have to have a clear understanding of the message first, which might be the information that doesn’t relate to their field or hard to understand. Then you have to manipulate it to be as easy to understand as possible while doesn’t lose its original meaning or purpose. From this reason, information design is the next step for how typography balances its beauty and function in the design world.

Edward Tufte could be the very first one who notices that we have to do something with this boring massive text of information. As one of the pioneer in information design world, his works are focusing on data visualization and translate it into simpler format such as charts, graphs, or diagrams.[1] Tufte’s chart doesn’t only simplified the mass among of information, but also gives life to it. For example of this chart about history of pop/rock music, it shows the flow of information of music history, while giving sense of movement. As music is a moving subject especially pop/rock culture, it should be fun and lively presented instead of static information format.[2] 

Of course some information should be presented in formal format. For example, the chart of Napoleon’s army in the Russian Campaign of 1812, by adjusting some tiny elements like positioning group of text and old style type choice, gives the feeling like this data come out from the 1812 war document. While giving an interesting visual, the chart function as an information design that easy to follow.[3]

From the examples by Edward Tufte, information is not just a line of text or data that wait for you to go to understand it. It has character and identity, so it’s our job as a designer to emphasize their identity, while keeping the core of its meaning and purpose clear. Tufte’s designs are successful because he has a clear understanding about the message and he can deliver it in an effective way. Although understand the message is important, but there’s endless way to execute it, the other thing that you have to understand is your audience. Tufte’s strength is not only he in charges the information, but also as an instructor, he understands his target and delivers it efficiently.

            Edward Tufte could be the master of physical information designer, but information could be conceptual as well. I don’t see who’s better than the current president of the Rhode Island School of Design, John Maeda. Like David Carson, at first Maeda didn’t have background in art or design field. He studied in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, where earned him priceless experience in different perspective. Maeda gained PhD in Design Science from the University of Tsukuba in Japan later, which now he has the ability of logical computation and art and design.[4] By this reason, it makes Maeda different from Carson. While Carson uses his own understanding and inborn artistic skill to create his works without art and design at all, Maeda has a deep understanding on both rational and conceptual thinking.

Maeda always inspire by the concept of infinity. As his works usually imply a hint of this concept. And digital could be the closest medium that can bring him to the idea.[5] For example of his work that shows his conceptual thinking, computer engineering, and abstract expression is, “CD Crash.” It’s an installation of PowerMac G3 that continue the loop of eject CD action (infinity concept) for three months. This work is an example that Maeda has a strong relation with technology in both conceptual and be able to present it in an art form.[6]

Back to typography and data visualization, his work for celebrate thirty years of Shiedo Advertising Films is a good example to show how he deals with information by his own method. The work contains three types of data: visual, audio, and film titles. By arranging all the information together and present in an abstract way, the work gives a sense of the film company. The sound wave align on the bottom, the square that pack of film visual, and the flow of film titles show the fundamental elements of film industry. The massive among of very tiny text and visual could show that the company has a lot of works during the thirty years in film industry. Besides the stunning visual and deep conceptual thinking, this work has the feeling of computer coding generated and sense of infinity, which is Maeda’s signature.[7]

In conclusion, in term of information design, function should leads beauty. Since understanding is more important than artistic satisfaction, but information won’t function without beauty. So it comes to balance it, but how we know this is the perfect balance? Where is the line that tells us? I don’t think the perfect design exist, as long as we, human is a subjective being. There’s no way to design something that everyone love. The best way to compromise this issue I found so far is the design that “most” of people love. I believe that’s the good design. I believe that’s the balance between function and beauty.


1.Digitalnature, Information Design: Edward Tufte. (accessed 5 Nov. 2012).
2.Edward Tufte, Popular Music: The Classic Graphic by Reebee Garofalo. (accessed 5 Nov. 2012).
3.Edward Tufte, Poster: Napoleon’s March. (accessed 5 Nov. 2012).
4.Holly Willis, Biography: John Maeda. (accessed 5 Nov. 2012).
5.John Maeda, Creative Code: Space (New York: Themes & Hudson Inc., 2004), 17-18.
6.John Maeda, Creative Code: Resume (New York: Themes & Hudson Inc., 2004), 7.
7.John Maeda, Maeda@Media: Static (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 2000), 162-165.

Beauty VS Function (Part 1 Edited) - Tongtach

Design is a social activity, if you doubt on that please look around. Look at the label on the bottle of water you are drinking, the pen you are holding, or these lines of text you are reading right now. Everything around us is communicating with us. We receive messages and participate with them no matter we do it on purpose or not. But which kind of design element can do that? Actually every element plays their part, grid system arranges information, pictures call viewer’s attention, color expresses emotion, but one of the most talkative elements that interact with people is typography. It has been doing its job in design for a very long time, keep and send information, express feeling, teach history class, and so on. Nevertheless, social’s need change continuously, so typography has to adjust itself through different period of time. How typography manages to balance its beauty and function from the past to present and what’s going to happen in the future.

In the past, typography concerned on beauty and decoration, since it was the imitation from nature. So it has more sense of emotional feeling than we see in the present day. However, the changed of typography follow the social’s need and invention of technology. For example, the richly influence from religion in medieval era shows the use of shiny gold color and decoration, the invention of Gutenberg’s printing system, and so on. Typography changed in many ways from the past especially during 19th century. To adjust itself to the coming of modern world, it changed to be more function and objective. Even though, what Marinetti did in Les mots en liberte futurists (The Futurist Words-In-Freedom)(1919) was bent and twisted typefaces to express speed and aggression according to his poetry. This shows typography still carried the idea of emotion’s expression from the past.[1] 

Different from the past, in modern era typography has to concern on legibility and readability more than beauty like the old typography. This moment of changed, it created transitional typeface that concern both decoration of old style typography and high readability of modern typography such as Baskerville. El Lissitzky believed that, the idea of art will become materialism and can be mass produce in this world of industry.[2] So it comes to consideration of how to compromise the balance between functional and printing price. By that reason, to put a large among of text in printing industry, typography has to be simpler, so the use of geometric typefaces was the answer. The foundation geometric typeface, Futura by Paul Renner created by using all geometric proportion. Inspired by the Bauhaus philosophy, it shows a strong sense of simplicity and geometry shape, which still popular in countless corporate logo, commercial products, and advertisements in the present day, such as Louis Vuitton, Red Bull, Ikea, and so on.[3]

In the present day, typography has more variety of usage. Since there is a lot of differences media invented. For example, text that appears on digital screen instead of papers, moving text in motion media or animation, and so on. Also audience for typography has more variety than the past. There is no rule or standard, design depends on what you want to communicate with your audience. Even Comic Sans could be used efficiently if you use in a proper way. In other words, beauty and function of typography in the present day depends on target audience, if it communicates to your audience, it is beautiful and functional. One example that deals with subjectivity and objectivity very well was David Carson. Carson expressed his subjectivity by breaking all typography rules. He deconstructed typefaces, broke grids, and crashed text layout. With a tiny design background, he has no limit in design. He sat the whole article in Dingbat font once, while he was working for Ray Gun magazine.[4] Of course the whole article is unreadable, but that grab people’s attention to the magazine and makes them curious and want to know about the article. As Ray Gun was a magazine for teenager, it needs a strong sense of confidence instead of formal layout. However, while post-modernism and young generation love Carson’s works, but his works against the idea of practical designer, which design should aim for perfection instead of subjective expression. It’s still a debate until this present day, that Carson is a designer who worth to study or not, but without a doubt that his name has brought up to be an example countless times in design class.[5]

If the world keeps moving this fast, in the near future, typography would be faster and easier to consume as well. As you can see in phone’s text message or informal message, that the message has shorten in an inappropriate way. Such as “how are you” write in “how r u” or use symbol and emoticon. This might be a sign that affect typography in the future. We write and read less and less, and the book may be eliminated altogether. The time may come when we have to learn to communicate by electronic or extrasensory means. Again, that typography might change according to our need.[6]

In conclusion, typography has been changing for a long time in human history. It represents our life in differences period of time. As in the past, writing, reading, and book material is for rich or noble people so the typography at that time concerned on beauty and decoration. When time change, printing and digital technology came in and reading is for everyone, typography changed to be more functional than the past. In my opinion, we are living in the world of communication. If typography can send messages and interact with people, I consider it beautiful and functional.


1. F.T. Marinetti, Graphic Design Theory: Manifesto of Futurism, ed. Helen Armstrong (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 20-24.
2. El Lissitzky, Graphic Design Theory: Our Book, ed. Helen Armstrong (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 25-30.
3. Skylar Challend, Know Your Type: Futura. (accessed 12 Oct. 2012).
4. Exhibitions/Events Magazine, Helvetica VS Zapf Dingbats, 2012. (accessed 12 Oct. 2012).
5. Adam Banks, An interview with David Carson, wordpress/david- carson-riverside-quark-macuserinterview/1175/ (accessed 12 Oct. 2012).
6. Herbert Bayer, Graphic Design Theory: On Typography, ed. Helen Armstrong (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 44-48.